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Institute of 
Marine & Coastal Sciences

Program Overview

IRES: Molecular Ecology and Evolution of Marine Photosynthetic Organisms

Biocomplexity Project (EREUPT): Phytoplankton evolution

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Course Info: History of  Earth Systems

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Graduate Program in Oceanography

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IMCS Research Facilities 

Last updated: February 2007


Environmental Biophysics and Molecular Ecology

Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

71 Dudley Road

New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8521

Tel#: (732) 932-6555

Fax #: (732) 932-4083






  • Levitan, O., Brown, C.M., Sudhaus. S., Campbell, D., LaRoche, J. and Berman-Frank, I. 2010. Regulation of nitrogen metabolism in the marine diazotroph Trichodesmium IMS101 under varying temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Environmental Microbiology 12(7): 1899-1912.

  • Oliver M.J.,O. Schofield and K. Bidle. 2010. Density dependent expression of a diatom retrotransposon. Marine Genomics  3(3-4):145-150 (doi:10.1016/j.margen.2010.08.006)

  • K.D. Bidle. 2010. Phytoplankton-bacteria interactions:  Ectohydrolytic enzymes and their influence on biogeochemical cycling. Limnol. Oceanogr. e-Lectures 4 (

  • S. Whittaker*, K.D. Bidle, A. Kutska, and P.G. Falkowski. 2010. Quantification of nitrogenase in Trichodesmium IMS 101: Implications for iron limitation of nitrogen fixation in the ocean.  Environ. Microbiol. Reports (doi: 10.1111/j.1758-2229.2010.00187.x)

  • K.A. Bidle, L. Haramaty, N. Baggett, J. Nannen, and K.D. Bidle. 2010. Tantalizing evidence for archaeal  caspase-like protein expression and activity and its role in cellular stress response. Environ. Microbiol. 12(5): 1161-1172.




  • Finkel, Z., J. Sebbo, S. Feist-Burkhardt, A.J. Irwin, M.E. Katz, O.M.E. Schofield, J.R. Young, P.G. Falkowski. 2007. A universal driver of macroevolutionary change in the size of marine phytoplankton over the Cenozoic. PNAS 104: 20416-20420. [Reprint Copy - PDF]

  • Lee, S., K.D. Bidle, D.R. Marchant, P.G. Falkowski. 2007. Fossil genes and microbes entombed in the oldest ice on earth. PNAS 104: 13455-13460.  [Reprint Copy - PDF]

  • Shi, T., Y. Sun, and P.G. Falkowski. (2007) Effects of iron limitation on the expression of metabolic genes in the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101. Env. Microbiol. doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2007.01406.x [Reprint Copy - PDF]

  • Reuer, M.K., Barnett, B.A., Bender, M.L., Falkowski, P.G., Hendricks, M.B. (2007) New estimates of Southern Ocean biological production rates from 02/Ar ratios and the triple isotope compositon of 02.  Deep-Sea Res. I.  54: 951-974.  [Reprint Copy - PDF]

  • Oliver, M.J., Petrov, D., Ackerly, D., Falkowski, P. Schofield, O.M. (2007) The mode and tempo of genome size evolution in eukaryotes. Genome Res. 17: 594-601.
    [Reprint Copy - PDF]

  • Berman-Frank, I., Rosenberg, G., Levitan, O., Haramaty, L., Mari, X. 2007. Coupling between autocatalytic cell death and transparent exopolymeric particle production in the marine cyanobacteria Trichodesmium. Environmental Microbiology. 9: 1415-1422.[Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Berman-Frank, I., Quigg, A., Finkel, Z., Irwin, A., Haramaty, L. 2007. Nitrogen-fixation strategies and Fe requirements in cyanobacteria. Limnology and Oceanography. 52: 2260-2269. [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Bidle, K.D., L. Haramaty, J. Barcelos e Ramos, P. Falkowski. 2007.  Viral activation and recruitment of metacaspases in the unicellular coccolithophore, Emiliania huxleyi.  PNAS 104: 6049-6054.  [Reprint Copy - PDF]

  • Falkowski, P.G. and Oliver, M.J.  2007. Mix and match: how climate selects phytoplankton.  Nature Reviews Microbiol. Nature Reviews Microbiol. 5: 813-819.  [Reprint Copy - PDF]

  • Andrianasolo, E., Haramaty, L., Degenhardt, K., Mathew, R., White, E. Lutz, R., Falkowski, P.  (2007)  Induction of apoptosis by diterpenes from the soft coral Xenia elongata. J. Nat. Prod.   [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • van de Schootbrugge, B., F. Tremolada, Y. Rosenthal, T,R, Bailey, S. Feist-Burkhardt, H. Brinkhuis, J. Pross, D.V. Kent, P.G. Falkowski.  2007.  End-Triassic calcification crisis and blooms of organic-walled 'disaster species'.  Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 244: 126-141.  [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • McGillicuddy, Jr. D.J., L.A. Anderson, N.R. Bates, T. Bibby, K.O. Buessler, C. Carlson, C. Davis, C. Ewart, P.G. Falkowski, S.A. Goldthwait, D.A. Hansell, W.J. Jenkins, R. Johnson, V.K. Kosnyrev, J.R. Ledwell, Q.P. Li, D.A. Siegel, D.K. Steinberg. 2007. Eddy-wind interactions stimulate extraordinary mid-ocean plankton blooms.  Science 316: 1021-1026.
    [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Finkel, Z.V., A.S. Quigg, R.K. Chiampi, O.E. Schofield, P.G. Falkowski. 2007. Phylogenetic diversity in cadmium : phosphorus ratio regulation by marine phytoplankton.  Limnol. Oceanogr. 52: 1131-1138.  [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Milligan, A.J., I. Berman-Frank, G.C. Dismukes, P.G. Falkowski.  2007.  Light-dependent oxygen consumption in nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria plays a key role in nitrogenase protection. J. Phycol. 43: 845-852. [Reprint Copy - PDF]

  • Litchman, E., C.A. Klausmeier, O.E.M. Schofield, P.G. Falkowski. (2007)  The role of functional traits and trade-offs in structuring phytoplankton communities: scaling from cellular to ecosystem level.  Ecology Letters  10:1170-1181.  [please contact for a reprint copy]

  • Falkowski, P.G. and J.A. Raven. 2007. Aquatic Photosynthesis (2nd edition). Princeton University Press. Princeton, 484 pp.
  • Falkowski, P.G. and A.H. Knoll (eds). 2007.  The Evolution of Aquatic Photoautotrophs. Academic Press. New York, 456 pp.
  • Falkowski, P.G. and A.H. Knoll.  2007.  An introduction to primary producers in the sea: who they are, what they do, and when they evolved. In The Evolution of Aquatic Photoautotrophs, P.G. Falkowski and A.H. Knoll (eds). Academic Press. New York, 456 pp.
  • Katz, M.E., K. Fennel, P.G. Falkowski. 2007. Geochemical and biological consequences of phytoplankton evolution. In The Evolution of Aquatic Photoautotrophs, P.G. Falkowski and A.H. Knoll (eds). Academic Press. New York, 456 pp.


  • Hood, R,R, E. Lawson, R.A. Armstrong, N.R. Bates, C.W. Browne, CA. Carlson, F. Chaig, S.C. Doney, P.G. Falkowski, R.A. Feely, M.A.M. Friedrichs, M.R. Landry, J.K. Moore, D.M. Nelson, T.L. Richardson, B. Salihoglu, M.Schartau, D.A. Toole, J.D. Wiggert. 2006. Pelagic functional group modeling: progress, challenges and prospects. Deep-Sea Research II: 53: 459-512. [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Falkowski, P.G.  2006. Tracing oxygens imprint on Earths metabolic evolution. Science 311: 1724-1725. [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Behrenfeld, M.J., R.T. OMalley, D.A. Siegel, C.R. McClain, J.L. Sarmiento, G.C. Feldman, A.J. Milligan, P.G. Falkowski, R.M. Letelier, E. Boss. (2006) Climate-driven trends in contemporary ocean productivity. Nature 444: 752-755. [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Finkel, Z. V., Quigg, A. S., Raven, J. A., Reinfelder, J. R., Schofield , O ., Falkowski P. G.(2006). Irradiance and the elemental stoichiometry of marine phytoplankton. Limnology and Oceanography. 51: 2690-2701.[Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Tremolada F., E. Erba, B. van de Schootbrugge, and M. Mattioli (2006). The calcareous phytoplankton response to the late Callovian-early Oxfordian cooling phase. Marine Micropaleontology 59: 197-209. [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Litchman, E., C.A. Klausmeier, J.R. Miller, O.M. Schofield, P.G. Falkowski. 2006.  Multi-nutrient, multi-group model of present and future oceanic phytoplankton communities. Biogeosciences. 3: 585-606. [Reprint Copy - PDF]

  • Irwin, A.J., Z.V. Finkel, O.M.E. Schofield, P.G. Falkowski.  2006.  Scaling-up from nutrient physiology to the size-structure of phytoplankton communities.  J. Plankton Res. 28: 459-471.  [Reprint Copy - PDF]

  • Koblizek, M., P.G. Falkowski, and Z.S. Kolber.  (2006) Diversity and distribution of photosynthetic bacteria in the Black Sea.  Deep-Sea Res. II 53 1934-1944.
    [Reprint Copy - PDF]

  • Wolfe-Simon, F., Starovoyotov, V., Reinfelder, J., Schofield, O., P. Falkowski.  2006. Localization and role of manganese superoxide dismutase in a marine diatom. Plant Physiol. 142: 1701-1709.  [Reprint Copy - PDF]


  • Jiang, L., O. Schofield, and P. G. Falkowski (2005).  Adaptive evolution of phytoplankton cell size.  Am. Nat. 166: 496-505.  [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Fennel, K., M. Follows, and P. G. Falkowski (2005). The co-evolution of the nitrogen, carbon and oxygen cycles in the Proterozoic ocean. Am. J. Sci. 305: 526-545.  [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • van de Schootbrugge, B., J. M. McArthur, T. R. Bailey, Y. Rosenthal, J. D. Wright, and K. G. Miller. 2005. Toarcian oceanic anoxic event: An assessment of global causes using belemnite C isotope records. Paleoceanography: 20 (in press). [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Shi, T., T. S. Bibby, L. Jiang, A. J. Irwin, and P. G. Falkowski (2005).  Protein interactions limit the rate of evolution of photosynthetic genes in cyanobacteria.  Mol. Biol. Evol. 22: 2179-2189.  [Reprint Copy-PDF]
  • Finkel, Z. V. , M. E. Katz, J. D. Wright, O.M.E. Schofield and P. G. Falkowski (2005). Cenozoic climate and the macroevolution of marine diatom cell size. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA. 102: 8927-8932.  [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Giordano, M., Y.-B. Chen, M. Koblizek, and P. G. Falkowski (2005).  Regulation of nitrate reductase in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by the redox state of the plastoquinone pool.  Eur. J. Phycol. 40: 345-352.   [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Falkowski, P. G., M. E. Katz,  A Milligan, K. Fennel, B. Cramer, M. P. Aubry, R. A. Berner, M. Novacek and W. M. Zapole (2005).  The rise of atmospheric oxygen over the past 205 million years and the evolution of large placental mammals.  Science 309: 2202-2204. [Reprint Copy-PDF]
  • Ananayev, G., Z. S. Kolber, D. Klimov, P. G. Falkowski, J. A. Berry, U. Rascher, R. Martin, and B. Osmond (2005). Remote sensing of heterogeneity in photosynthetic efficiency, electron transport and dissipation of excess light in Populus deltoids stands under ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations, and in a tropical forest canopy, using a new laser-induced fluorescence transient device. Global Change Biology 11: 1195-1206. [Reprint Copy-PDF]
  • O. Schofield and P.G. Falkowski. 2005. The role and evolution of superoxide dismutase in algae. J. Phycol. 41:453-465.  [Reprint Copy - PDF] This is an electronic version of an article published in Journal of Phycology 2005, the Phycological Society of America.
  • van de Schootbruge, B, TR Bailey, Y Rosenthal, ME Katz, JD Wright, KG Miller, S Faust-Burkhardt and PG Falkowski.  2005. Early Jurassic climate change and the radiation of organic walled phytoplankton in the Tethys ocean.  Paleobiol. 31:73-97.
  • Wolfe-Simon, F., O. Schofield and P.G. Falkowski. 2005. The role and evolution of superoxide dismutase in algae. J. Phycol. 41:453-465.  [Reprint Copy - PDF] This is an electronic version of an article published in Journal of Phycology 2005, the Phycological Society of America.
  • Jiang, L. and P. J. Morin. 2005. Predator diet breadth influences the relative importance of bottom-up and top-down control of prey.  The American Naturalist 165: 350-363.  [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Frost, P.,  MA Evans-White, ZV Finkel, TC Jensen, V Matzek. 2005. Are you what you eat? Physiological constraints on organismal stoichiometry in an
    elementally imbalanced world. Oikos 109: 18-28. [Reprint Copy - PDF]


  • Katz, M.E., Z.V. Finkel, D. Grzebyk, A.H. Knoll, and P.G. Falkowski (2004).  Evolutionary trajectories and biogeochemical impacts of marine eukaryotic phytoplankton.  Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 35: 523-556.  [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Katz , M.E. , J.D. Wright, K.G. Miller, B.S. Cramer, K. Fennel and P.G. Falkowski. 2004. Biological overprint of the geological carbon cycle.  Marine Geol. 217: 323-338. [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Falkowski, P.G. and C. Davis. 2004. Natural proportions. Nature 431: 131.  [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • ZV Finkel, AJ Irwin and O Schofield. 2004. Resource limitation alters the 3/4 size-scaling of metabolic rates in phytoplankton. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 273: 269-279.  [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Jiang, L. and P. J. Morin. 2004. Productivity gradients cause positive diversity-invasibility relationships in microbial communities. Ecology Letters 7: 1047-1057 [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Falkowski, P. G. and D.  Tchernov.  2003. Human footprint on the ecological landscape. In. Earth System Analysis for Sustainabilty, ed, J. Schellnhuber. Springer-Verlag , Berlin . [Reprint Copy - PDF]  
  • Tchernov, D., M. Gorbunov, C. de Vargas, S. Yadav, A. Milligan, M. Haggblom, and P. Falkowski. 2004. Membrane lipids of symbiotic algae are diagnostic of sensitivity to thermal bleaching in corals. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 101: 13531-13535.  [Reprint Copy - PDF]  
  • Bidle, K.D. and P.G. Falkowski.  2004.  Cell death in planktonic, photosynthetic microorganisms.  Nature Reviews Microbiology 2: 643-655. [Reprint Copy - PDF]  
  • Berman-Frank, I, KD Bidle, L Haramaty, PG Falkowski.  2004.  The demise of the marine cyanobacterium, Trichodesmium spp., via an autocatalyzed cell death pathway. Limnol. Oceanogr. 49: 997-1005. [Reprint Copy - PDF]  
  • Sun, Y, E.W. Castner Jr., C.L. Lawson, and P.G. Falkowski. 2004. Biophysical characterization of natural and mutant fluorescent proteins cloned from zooxanthellate corals.  FEBS Letters 570:  175-183. [Reprint Copy - PDF] 
  • Jiang, L. and Kulczycki, A.  2004.  Competition, predation and species responses to environmental change.  OIKOS 106: 217-224.  [Reprint Copy PDF]
  • Falkowski, PG, ME Katz, AH Knoll, A Quigg, JA Raven, O Schofield, FJR Taylor .  2004.  The evolution of modern eukaryotic phytoplankton.  Science 305: 354-360. [Reprint Copy PDF]
  • Tozzi, S., O. Schofield, PG Falkowski.  2004.  Historical climate change and ocean turbulence as selective agents for two key phytoplankton functional groups.  Marine Ecology Progress Series.  274: 123-132.  [Reprint Copy PDF]
  • Levy, O. et al.  2004.  Diurnal hysteresis in coral photosythesis.  Mar.Ecol. Prog. Ser.  268: 105-117. [Reprint Copy PDF]
  • Gervais, F, U Riebesell, MY Gorbunov.  2004.  Changes in primary productivity and chlorophyll a in response to iron fertilization in the Southern Polar Frontal Zone.  Limnol. Oceanog. 1324-1335. [Reprint Copy PDF]     
  • Coale, KH et al.  2004.  Southern Ocean Iron Enrichment Experiment:  Carbon Cycling in High- and Low-Si Waters. Science 304: 408-412 [Reprint Copy PDF]
  • Falkowski, PG, and C. de Vargas.  2004.  Shotgun sequencing in the sea:  a blast from the past? Science 304: 58-60. [Reprint Copy PDF]
  • Falkowski, PG, O Schofield, ME Katz, B van de Schootbrugge, and A Knoll. 2004. Why is the land green and the ocean red? In Coccolithophorids. Ed. H. Thierstein and J. Young. Springer-Verlag. Berlin .  [Reprint Copy PDF]
  • Jiang, L and P Morin.  2004.  Temperature-dependent interactions explain unexpected responses to environmental warming in communities of competitors.  Journal of Animal Ecology 73: 569-576. [Reprint Copy PDF]
  • Jiang, L and N. Shao.  2004.  Red environmental noise and the appearance of delayed density dependence in age-structured populations.  Proc. Royal Soc. London 271: 1059-1064.  [Reprint Copy PDF]  
  • Lesser, MP, CH Mazel, MY Gorbunov and PG Falkowski. (2004) Discovery of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria in corals.  Science 305: 997-1000. [Reprint Copy PDF]  
  • Chen, Y-B, D. Durnford, M. Koblizek, and P. G. Falkowski. 2004. Plastid regulation of Lhcb1 transcription in the chlorophyte alga, Dunaliella tertiolecta.  Plant Physiol. 136: 3737-3750. [Reprint Copy PDF]


  • Falkowski, P.G. 2003.  The biogeochemistry of primary productivity in the sea.  In Treastise of Geochemistry.  [Ed] W.H. Schlesinger.
  • Koblizek M, etal. 2003.  Isolation and characterization of Erythrobacter sp. strains from the upper ocean.  Arch Microbiol.  180: 327-338.  [Reprint Copy PDF]
  • Segovia , M., L. Haramaty, J.A. Berges and P.G. Falkowski.  2003.  Cell Death in the Unicellular Chlorophyte Dunaliella tertiolecta.  A Hypothesis on the Evolution of Apoptosis in Higher Plants and Metazoans.  Plant Physiology.  [Reprint Copy PDF]
  • Grzebyk, D., O. Schofield, C. Vetriani, and P. G. Falkowski. 2003. The Mesozoic radiation of eukaryotic algae: The portable plastid hypothesis. J. Phycol. 39:259-267.  [Reprint Copy PDF]
  • Berman-Frank, I. , P. Lundgren, and P.G. Falkowski.  2003. Nitrogen fixation and photosynthetic oxygen evolution in cyanobacteria.  Res. Microbiol.  154:157-164.  [Reprint Copy PDF]
  • Falkowski PG, Laws EA, Barber RT, Murray JW. 2003. Phytoplankton and their role in Primary, New, and Export Production.  (Chapter 4) In Ocean Biogeochemistry: The Role of the Ocean Carbon Cycle in Global Change.  [Ed] MJR Fasham.  Global Change The IGBP Series.  [Reprint Copy PDF]
  • Quigg, A. Finkel, Z.V. Irwin, A.J. Reinfelder, J.R. Rosenthal, Y. Ho,T-Y. Schofield, O. Morel, F.M.M. and Falkowski, P.G. 2003 The evolutionary inheritance of elemental stoichiometry in marine phytoplankton.Nature 425: 291-294. [Reprint Copy PDF]
  • Ho, T-Y. Quigg, A. Finkel, Z.V. A. Milligan, K. Wyman, Falkowski, P.G. and Morel, F.M.M. 2003. The elemental composition of some marine phytoplankton. J. Phycology 39: 1145-1159. 
  • Beardall, J. and Quigg, A. and Raven, J.A. 2003 Oxygen consumption: Photorespiration and chlororespiration. (Chapter 8) In Photosynthesis in the Algae. [Eds.] T. Larkum, JA. Raven, and S. Douglas. Advances in Photosynthesis Series, Kluwer Academic Publishing. pp. 157-181.
  • Quigg, A. and Beardall, J. 2003 Protein turnover in relation to maintenance metabolism at low photon flux in two marine microalgae. Plant, Cell and Environment 26: 1-10.  [Reprint Copy PDF]
  • Quigg, A. Beardall, J. and Wydrzynski, T. 2003 An investigation of the photosynthetic O2 - evolving reactions in two marine microalgae as a function of the photon flux during growth. Functional Plant Biology 30: 301-308.  [Reprint Copy PDF]


  • Falkowski, P. G. 2002. The Ocean's Invisible Forest . Scientific American 287: 38-45. [Reprint Copy - PDF]  
  • M. Debora Iglesias-Rodriguez, C. W. Brown, S.C. Doney, J. Kleypas, D. Kolber, Z. Kolber, P.K. Hayes, and P. G. Falkowski. 2002. Representing key phytoplankton functional groups in ocean carbon cycle models:  coccolithophorids. Global Biogiochemical Cycles  16: [Reprint Copy - PDF] 
  • Gorbunov, M and P.G. Falkowski.  2002. Photoreceptors in Cnidarian hosts allow symbiotic corals to sense the light of the blue moon. Limnol. Oceanogr. 47:309-315  [Reprint Copy - PDF] 
  • Chisholm, S.W., P.G. Falkowski and J. Cullen. 2002. Is Ocean Fertilization Credible and Creditable? Science  296:467-468.
  • Berman-Frank, I. and P.G. Falkowski. 2002. Evolution of Nitrogen Fixation.  Science. 295:798-799. [Reprint Copy PDF]
  • Charles H. Mazel, C.H., Lesser, M.P., Barry, T.M., Farrell, J.H., Gorbunov, M.Y., Wyman, K.D., and Paul G. Falkowski. 2002. Green fluorescent proteins in Carribean corals.  Limnol. Oceanogr. 48: 402-411.  [Reprint Copy PDF]
  • Grzymski, Joe, Oscar M. Schofield, Paul G. Falkowski, and Joan M. Bernhard. 2002.  The function of plastids in the deep-sea benthic foraminifer, Nonionella stella. Limnol. Oceanogr. 47: 1569-1580.  [Reprint Copy PDF]
  • Sun, Y., E. Castner, and P.G. Falkowski.  Biochemical and biophysical characterization of novel fluorescent proteins from corals.  J. Biol. Chem. (in review)
  • Quigg, A. Beardall, J. and Wydrzynski, T. 2002 An investigation of the photosynthetic O2 evolving reactions in two marine microalgale as a function of the photon flux during growth. Functional Plant Biology. (in press)
  • Campbell, J., Falkowski, P.G., and others. 2000. Comparison of algorithms for estimating ocean primary production from surface chlorophyll, temperature and irradiance. Global Biogeochem. Cycles. 16: 10.1029/2001GB001444.  [Reprint Copy PDF]


  • Falkowski, P.G. (2001) Biogeochemical cycles. In: Encyclopedia of Biodiversity. S.A. Levin, ed. Academic Press, 1: 437-453. [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Z. V. Finkel and A.J. Irwin. 2001. Light absorption and the filter amplification correction: species-specific and size-specific effects. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 259: 51-61 [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Chisholm, S.W., P.G. Falkowski and J. Cullen. 2001 Dis-crediting Ocean Fertilization. Science. 294: 309-310. [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Ilana Berman-Frank, Pernilla Lundgren, Yi-Bu Chen, Hendrik Kupper,  Zbigniew Kolber,  Birgitta Bergman, and Paul Falkowski. 2001. Segregation of Nitrogen Fixation and Oxygenic Photosynthesis in the Marine Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium. Science 294: 1534-1537. [Reprint Copy - PDF] 
  • Litchman, Elena and Christopher A. Klausmeier. 2001. Competition of Phytoplankton under Fluctuating Light. American Naturalist 157: 171-187. [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Gorbunov, M.Y., Z.S. Kolber, M.P.Lesser, and P.G. Falkowski. 2001.  Photosynthesis     and photoprotection in symbiotic corals. Limnol. Oceanogr. 46(1):75-85. [Reprint Copy -PDF]
  • Behrenfeld, M. and others. 2001.  Biospheric responses on ENSO time scales. Science 291: 2594-2597. [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Berman- Frank, I. , J. Cullen, Y. Hareli, R. Sherrell, and P. G. Falkowski.  2001. Iron availability, cellular iron quotas, and nitogen fixation in Trichodesmium. Limnol Oceanogr. 46(6): 1249-1260. [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Kolber, Z.S. et al.  2001. Contribution of Aerobic Photoheterotrophic Bacteria to the Carbon Cycle in the Ocean. Science 292: 2492-2496. [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Falkowski, PG. And Y. Rosenthal. 2001. Biological diversity and resource plunder in the geological record: Casual correlations or causal relationships?  Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 98: 4290-4292. [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Segovia , M., L Haramaty, Y. Chen, T. Shi, J. A. Berges and P.G. Falkowski. 2001. Caspases and cell death in unicellular algae:  The evolution of apoptosis.  Science (in review).
  • Doney, S.C., J.A. Kleypas, J.L.Sarmiento and P.G. Falkowski. 2001. The U.S. JGOFS Synthesis and Modeling Project, an Introduction. Deep-Sea Res. II 49:1-20.  [Reprint Copy PDF]
  • Stoll, H.M., Y. Rosenthal, and P. G. Falkowski. 2001. Climate proxies from Sr/Ca of coccolith calcite: Calibrations from continuous culture of Emiliania huxleyi. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 66:927-936.  [Reprint Copy PDF]
  • Finkel, Z.V. 2001. Light absorption and size scaling of light-limited metabolism in marine diatoms. Limnol. Oceanogr. 46(1): 86-94. [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Cullen, Jay T., Y. Rosenthal, and P.G. Falkowski. 2001. The effect of anthropogenic CO2 on the carbon isotopic composition of marine phytoplankton. Limnol. Oceanogr. 46(4): 996-998. [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Gao, Y., Y. Kaufman, D. Tanre, D. Kolber and P.G. Falkowski. 2000. Seasonal   distributions of atmospheric iron fluxes to the global ocean.  Geophys. Res. Lett. 28: 29-34.  [Reprint Copy PDF]


  • Z. V. Finkel and A.J. Irwin. 2000. Modelling size-dependent photosynthesis: light absorption and the allometric rule. Journal of theoretical Biology, 204: 361-369. [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Laws, E.A., P.G.   Falkowski, W.O. Smith, Jr. and J.J. McCarthy.  2000.  Temperature effects on export production in the open ocean.  Global Biogeochem. Cycles 14:1231-1246. [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Gorbunov, M.Y., P.G. Falkowski and Z. S. Kolber. 2000.  Measurement of photosynthetic parameters in benthic organisms using a SCUBA-based fast repetition rate fluorometer. Limnol. Oceanogr.  45: 242-245. [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Kolber, Z.S., C. van Dover, RA Niederman, and P.G. Falkowski.  2000. Bacterial photosynthesis in surface waters of the open ocean. Nature 407: 177-179. [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Falkowski, P.G.  2000. Rationalizing elemental ratios in unicellular algae.  J. Phycol. 36: 3-6. [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Falkowski, P. G. and others. 2000. The global carbon cycle: A test of our knowledge of the Earth as a system.  Science 290: 291-294. [Reprint Copy - PDF]


  • Behrenfeld, M. J., and Z. S. Kolber. 1999 Widespread iron limitation in the South Pacific Science. 283, 840-843. [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Behrenfeld, M.J., O. Prasil, Z.S. Kolber, M. Babin and P.G. Falkowski. 1999.  Compensatory changes in Photosystem II electron turnover rates protect photosynthesis from photoinhibition. Photosyn. Res. 58: 259-268.  [Reprint Copy PDF]
  • Subramaniam, A., E.J. Carpenter, D. Karenz and P.G. Falkowski. 1999. Bio-optical properties of the marine diazotrophic cyanobcteria Trichodesmium  spp. I.  Absorption and photosynthetic action spectra.  Limnol. Oceanogr. 44: 618-627. [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Raven, J.A. and P.G. Falkowski. 1999.  Oceanic sinks for atmospheric CO2.  Plant Cell Environ. 22:741-755.  [Reprint Copy PDF]
  • Gorbunov, M.Y., Z.S. Kolber and P.G. Falkowski. 1999.  Measuring photosynthetic parameters in individual algal cells by Fast Repetition Rate Fluorometry.  Photosyn. Res. 62: 141-153. [Reprint Copy PDF]


  • Falkowski, P., R. Barber, V. Smetacek, 1998 Biogeochemical controls and feedbacks on ocean primary production. Science. 281: 200-206. [Reprint Copy - PDF] 
  • Sukenik, A., J. C. Schneider, P. G. Roessler, A. Livine, T. Berner, Z. S. Kolber, K. Wyman, O. Prasil, and P. G. Falkowski. Photosynthetic characterization of mutant of Nanochloris deficient in the synthesis of eicosapentaenoic acid. 1998. Israel J. Plant Sci. 46, 101-108.
  • Prasil, O., Z. S. Kolber, and P.G. Falkowski. Measurements of variable fluorescence using fast repetition rate techniques. II. Modulation of quantum yields by the Qb binding site. Submitted to Photosynt. Res.
  • Kolber, Z. S., O. Prasil, and P. G. Falkowski. Measurements of variable chlorophyll fluorescence using fast repetition rate techniques. I. Defining methodology and experimental protocols. 1998. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 1367, 88-106. [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Behrenfeld, M.B., O. Prasil, Z. S. Kolber, M. Babin, and P. G. Falkowski. Compensatory changes in photosystem II electron turnover rates protect photosynthesis from photo inhibition. Photosynth. Res. 58:1-10.
  • Dale, R. H., K. R. Arrigo, Z. S. Kolber, M. Gosselin, and C. W. Sullivan. 1998. Photophysiological evidence of nutrient limitation of platelet ice algae in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica . J. Phycology, 34, 788-787
  • Flagg, Ch. N., Z. S. Kolber, and D. Wallace. 1998. Cold anticyclonic eddies formed from cold pool water in the southern Middle Atlantic Bight. Cont. Shelf Res., 1839-1867
  • C.B. Field, M.J. Behrenfeld, J.T. Randerson, P.G. Falkowski. 1998. Primary production of the biosphere: Integrating terrestrial and oceanic components. Science 281: 237-240. [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Berges and Falkowski.  1998.  Physiological stress and cell death in marine phytoplankton : induction of proteases in response to nitrogen or light limitation. Limnol. Oceanogr. 43: 129-135. [Reprint Copy - PDF]


  • M.J. Behrenfeld & P.G. Falkowski. 1997. A consumer's guide to phytoplankton primary productivity models. Limnol. Oceanogr. 42(7):  1479-1491. [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • M.J. Behrenfeld & P.G. Falkowski. 1997. Photosynthetic rates derived from satellite-based chlorophyll concentration. Limnol. Oceanogr. 42:1-20 [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Falkowski, P.G., J.A. Raven, 1997a Aquatic Photosynthesis. Blackwell Scientific Publishers, Oxford , pp. 375.
  • Falkowski, P.G., J.A. Raven, 1997b The physics and physiology of photosynthesis in aquatic ecosystems. J. Phycol. 33: 1085-1086.
  • Falkowski, P.G., M.J. Behrenfeld, W.E. Esaias, W. Balch, J.W. Campbell, R.L. Iverson, D.A. Kiefer, A. Morel, & J. Yoder. 1997. Satellite primary productivity data and algorithm development: A Science plan for Mission to Planet Earth. SeaWiFS Technical Report Series. NASA Tech. Mem. #104566, Vol. 42.
  • Boyd, P. W., J. Aiken, and Z. S. Kolber. 1997. Comparison of radiocarbon and fluorescence-based pump and probe measurements of phytoplankton. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 149, 215-226.
  • Falkowski, P.G., 1997a Evolution of the nitrogen cycle and its influence on the biological sequestration of CO2 in the ocean. Nature. 387: 272-275. [Reprint Copy PDF]
  • Falkowski, P.G., 1997b The paradox of carbon dioxide efflux. Current Biology. 7: R637-R639.  [Reprint Copy PDF]
  • Robinson, D. H., Z. S. Kolber, and C. W. Sullivan. 1997. Photophysiology and photoacclimation in surface sea algae from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica . Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 147, 243-246.
  • R.C. Swartz, S.P Ferraro, J.O. Lamberson, F.A. Cole, R.J. Ozretich, B.L. Boese, D.W. Schults, M. Behrenfeld & G.T Ankley. (1997) Photoactivation and toxicity of mixtures of PAH compounds in marine sediment. Env. Tox. Chem. 10:2151-2157.


  • Berges, J.A., D.O. Charlebois, D.C. Mauzerall, P.G. Falkowski.  1996.  Differential effects of nitrogen limitation on photosynthetic efficiency of photosystems I and II in microalgae.  Plant Physiol. 110: 689-696.   [Reprint Copy PDF]
  • Polvka, T., Penčk, J., Kroh, P., Engst, D., Komenda, J., Pril, O., Falkowski, P.G., Hla, J. (1996)  Hole-burning study of energy transfer in antenna proteins of Dunaliella tertiolecta affectd by iron limitation. Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals Science and Technology Section A Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals 291: 111-117. 
  • Behrenfeld, M. J., A. J. Bale, Z. S. Kolber, J. Aiken, and P.G. Falkowski. 1996. Confirmation of iron limitation of phytoplankton photosynthesis in the equatorial Pacific Ocean . Nature 383, 508-511.
  • Prasil, O., Z.S. Kolber, J. A. Berry, and P. G. Falkowski. 1996. Cyclic electron flow around Photosystem II in vivo. Photosynth. Res. 48, 395-410.
  • Babin, M., A. Morel, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, Z.S. Kolber, and P. G. Falkowski. 1996. Nitrogen- and irradiance-dependent quantum yield of carbon fixation in eutrophic, mesotrophic, and oligotrophic marine systems. Deep-Sea Research 43, 1241-1272. [Reprint Copy PDF]
  • J.T. Hardy, A. Hanneman, M.J. Behrenfeld & R. Horner. 1996. Environmental biogeography of phytoplankton in the Southeast Pacific Ocean . Deep-Sea Res. 43(10):1-13.


  • Falkowski, P.G., 1995 Ironing out what controls primary production in the nutrient rich waters of the open ocean. Global Change Biology. 1: 161-163.
  • Vassiliev, I. R., Z. S. Kolber, D. Mauzerall, V.K. Shukla, K. D. Wyman, and P.G. Falkowski. 1995. Effects of iron limitation on photosystem II composition and energy trapping in Dunaliella tertiolecta. Plant Physiol. 109, 963-972.
  • Falkowski, P.G and Z. S. Kolber. 1995. Variations in chlorophyll fluorescence yields in phytoplankton in the world oceans. Aust. J. Plant. Physiol. 22, 341-355.
  • Vassiliev, I.R., et al.1995. Effects of iron limitation on photosystem II composition and light utilization in Dunaliella tertiolecta.  Plant Physiol.  109: 963-972.  [Reprint Copy PDF]


  • Falkowski, P.G., 1994 The role of phytoplankton photosynthesis in global biogeochemical cycles. Photosyn. Res. 39: 235-258.
  • Falkowski, P.G., P.E. Biscaye, C. Sancetta, 1994a The lateral flux of biogeneic particles from the eastern North American continental margin to the North Atlantic Ocean. Cont Shelf Res. 41: 583-601.
  • Falkowski, P.G, Z. S. Kolber, and D. Mauzerall. 1994. A comment on the Call to throw away your fluorescence induction apparatus. Biophys. J. 66, 923-925.
  • M.J. Behrenfeld, D.R.S Lean & H. Lee II. 1995. Ultraviolet-B radiation effects on inorganic nitrogen uptake by natural assemblages of oceanic plankton. J. Phycol. 31:25-36
  • Greene, R.M., Z. S. Kolber, D.G. Swift, N.W. Tindale, and P.G. Falkowski. 1994. Physiological limitation of phytoplankton photosynthesis in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific determined from variability of the quantum yield of fluorescence. Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1061-1074. [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Olaizola, M., J. Laroche, Z. S. Kolber, and P.G. Falkowski. 1994. Nonphotochemical Fluorescence Quenching and the Diadinoxanthin Cycle in Marine Phytoplankton. Photosynth. Res. 41, 357-370.
  • Vassiliev, I. R., O. Prasil, K. D. Wyman, Z. S. Kolber, A. K. Hanson, J. E. Prentice, and P. G. Falkowski. 1994. Inhibition of PSII photochemistry by PAR and UV radiation in natural phytoplankton communities. Photosynth. Res. 42, 51-64.
  • Polewski, K., S., L. Kramer, Z. S. Kolber, J. G. Trunk, D. C. Monteleone, and J. C. Sutherland. 1994. Time-resolved fluorescence using synchrotron radiation excitation: a powered fourth-cavity improves pulse stability. Rev. Sci. Instr. 65, 2562-2567.
  • Martin, J.H., K. H. Coale, Z. S. Kolber, et al. 1994. Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the Pacific Ocean . Nature 371, 123-129.
  • Kolber Z. S., R. T. Barber, K. H. Coale, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Greene, K. S. Johnson, S. Lindley, and P. G. Falkowski. 1994. Iron limitation of phytoplankton photosynthesis in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean. Nature 371, 145-149.


  • Falkowski, P.G., Z. Dubinsky, L. Muscatine, L. McCloskey, 1993 Population control in symbiotic corals. BioScience. 43: 606-611.
  • Falkowski, P.G., K. Kolber, 1993 Estimation of phytoplankton photosynthesis by active fluorescence. Internat. Con. Explor. Sea. Symp. 197: 92-103.
  • Kolber, Z. S. and P. G. Falkowski. 1993. Use of active fluorescence to estimate phytoplankton photosynthesis in situ. Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1646-1665. [Reprint Copy - PDF] 
  • Geider, R. J., R. M. Greene., Z. S. Kolber, H. MacIntyre, and P.G. Falkowski. 1993. Fluorescence assessment of the maximum quantum efficiency of photosynthesis in the western North Atlantic . Deep-Sea Res. 40, 1205-1224.
  • M.J. Behrenfeld, H. Lee II & L.F. Small. 1993. Interactions between nutritional status and long- term responses to ultraviolet-B radiation stress in a marine diatom. Mar. Biol. 118:523-530.
  • M.J. Behrenfeld, J.W. Chapman, J.T. Hardy & H. Lee II. 1993. Is there a common response to ultraviolet-B radiation by marine phytoplankton? Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 102:59-68.
  • M.J. Behrenfeld, J.T. Hardy, H. Gucinski, A. Hanneman, H. Lee II & A. Wones. 1993. Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on primary production along latitudinal transects in the South Pacific Ocean . Mar. Env. Res. 35:349-363.


  • Falkowski, P.G., 1992a Biotechnology and global climate change. Current opinion in biotechnology. 3: 286-290.
  • Falkowski, P.G., 1992b A carbon budget for the northeast continental shelf ecosystem: Results of the Shelf Edge Exchange Process Studies. In: K. Sherman, L. M. Alexander and B. D. Gold (eds.) Food Chains, Yields, Models, and Management of Large Marine Ecosystems. Westview Press, San Francisco . pp. 35-48.
  • Falkowski, P.G., 1992c Molecular ecology of phytoplankton photosynthesis. Primary Productivity and Biogeochemical Cycles in the Sea: 47-67.
  • Falkowski, P.G., C. Wilson, 1992 Phytoplankton productivity in the North Pacific ocean since 1900 and implications for absorption of anthropogenic CO2. Nature. 358: 741-743.
  • Falkowski, P.G., A.D. Woodhead, 1992 Primary Productivity and Biogeochemical Cycles in the Sea. Plenum Press, New York . pp. 550.
  • Falkowski, P.G., 1992d Molecular ecology of phytoplankton photosynthesis. In: P. G. Falkowski and A. Woodhead (eds.) Primary productivity and biogeochemical cycles in the sea. Plenum Press. pp. 47-67.
  • Falkowski, P.G., 1992e Phytoplankton Photosynthesis in the Ocean in relation to the Global Carbon Cycle. N. Murata (ed.), Research in Photosynthesis. 4: 803-810.
  • Falkowski, P. G., Y. Kim, Z. S. Kolber, C. Wilson, C. Wirick, and R. Cess. 1992. Natural versus antropogenic factors affecting low-level cloud albedo over the North Atlantic . Science 256, 1311-1313.
  • Falkowski, P.G., R. Greene, R. Geider, 1992a Physiological limitations on phytoplankton productivity in the ocean. Oceanography. 5(2): 84-91.
  • M.J. Behrenfeld, J.T. Hardy, & H. Lee II. 1992. Chronic effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on growth and cell volume of Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bacillariophyceae). J. Phycol. 28:757- 760.
  • Greene, R. M., R. J. Geider, Z. S. Kolber, and P. G. Falkowski. 1992. Iron-induced changes in light harvesting and photochemical conversion processes in eucaryotic marine algae. Plant Physiol. 100, 565- 575.


  • Falkowski, P.G., 1991 Species variability in the fractionation of 13C and 12C by marine phytoplankton. J. Plankton. Res. 13: 21-28.
  • Falkowski, P.G., S. Demers, L. Legendre, 1991a Concluding remarks: promises and limitations of individual cell and particle analysis. In: S. Demers (ed.) Particle Analysis in Oceanography, Series G ed, vol. 27. Springer-Verlag , Berlin . pp. 403-408.
  • Falkowski, P.G., D. Ziemann, Z. Kolber, P.K. Bienfang, 1991b Nutrient pumping and phytoplankton response in a subtropical mesoscale eddy. Nature. 352: 544-551.
  • Falkowski, P.G., D. Ziemann, Z. Kolber, P.K. Bienfang, 1991c Role of eddy pumping in enhancing primary production in the ocean. Nature. 352: 55-58.
  • Falkowski, P.G., J. LaRoche, 1991a Acclimatation to spectral irradiance in algae (minireview). J. Phycol. 27: 8-14.
  • Falkowski, P.G., J. LaRoche, 1991b Acclimation to spectral irradiance in algae. J. Phycol. 27: 8-14.
  • Falkowski, P.G., J. LaRoche, 1991c Adaptation to spectral irradiance in unicellular algae. J. Phycol. 27: 8-14.
  • Falkowski, P.G., L. J., 1991 Molecular biology in studies of ocean processes. International Review of Cytology. 128: 261-303.
  • Chowdhury, F.N., Z. S. Kolber, and M. D. Barkley. 1991. Monte Carlo convolution method for simulation and analysis of fluorescence decay data. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62 (1), 47-52.


  • Falkowski, P.G., Z. Kolber, 1990 Phytoplankton photosynthesis in the Atlantic Ocean as measured from a submersible pump and probe fluorometer in situ. In: M. Baltscheffsky (ed.) Current research in photosynthesis IV. Kluwer. pp. 923-926.
  • Falkowski, P.G., L.M. Kirschner, 1990 Ocean Biology and Global Climate. Natural Science: 284-291.
  • Kolber, Z. S, K. D. Wyman, and P. G. Falkowski. 1990. Natural variability in photosynthetic energy conversion efficiency: a field study in the Gulf of Maine . Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 72-79. [Reprint Copy - PDF]
  • Falkowski, P.G., P.L. Jokiel, R.A. Kinzie, 1990 Irradiance and Corals. Coral Reefs: 89-107.


  • Falkowski, P.G., A. Sukenik, R. Herzig, 1989 Nitrogen limitation in Isochrysis galbana (Haptophyceae). II. Relative abundance of chloroplast proteins. J. Phycol. 25: 471-478.
  • M.J. Behrenfeld & J.W Chapman. 1990. Our disappearing ozone shield. Current 10(3):13-17. 1988
  • Falkowski, P.G., C.N. Flagg, G.T. Rowe, S.L. Smith, T.E. Whiteledge, C.D. Wirick, 1988a The fate of a spring phytoplankton bloom: export or oxidation? Cont. Shelf Res. 8(5-7): 457-484.
  • Kolber, Z. S., J. Zehr, and P. G. Falkowski. 1988. Effects of growth irradiance and nitrogen limitation on photosynthetic energy conversion in Photosystem II. Plant Physiol. 88, 923-929.
  • Falkowski, P.G., Z. Kolber, Y. Fujita, 1988b Effect of redox state on the dynamics of Photosystem II during steady-state photosynthesis in eucaryotic algae. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 933: 432-443.
  • Falkowski, P.G., Z. Kolber, Y. Funita, 1988c Effect of redox state on the dynamics of Photosystem II during steady-state photosynthesis in eucaryotic algae. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 933: 432-443.


  • Falkowski, P.G., Y. Fujita, 1987 Effect of light state transitions on the apparent absorption cross section of photosystem II in Chlorella. In: J. Biggins (ed.) Progress in Photosynthesis Research, vol. II. Dordrecht , Mortinus Nijhoff. pp. 737-740.


  • Falkowski, P.G., Y. Fujita, A.C. Ley, D. Mauzerall, 1986a Evidence for cyclic electron flow around photosystem II in Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Plant Physiol. 81: 310-312.
  • Falkowski, P.G., Y. Fujita, A.C. Ley, D.C. Mauzerall, 1986b Evidence for cyclic electron flow around photosystem II in Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Plant Physiol. 81: 310-312.
  • Falkowski, P.G., K. Wyman, A.C. Ley, D. Mauzerall, 1986c Relationship of steady state photosynthesis to fluorescence in eucaryotic algae. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 849: 183-192.
  • Falkowski, P.G., K. Wyman, A.C. Ley, D.C. Mauzerall, 1986d Relationship of steady state photosynthesis to fluorescence in eucaryotic algae. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 849: 183-192.
  • Kolber, Z. S. and M. D Barkley. 1986. Comparison of approaches to the instrumental response function in fluorescence decay measurements. Anal. Biochemistry 152, 6-21.


  • Falkowski, P., D.A. Kiefer, 1985a Chlorophyll a fluorescence in phytoplankton: Relationship to photosynthesis and biomass. Group For Primary Productivity Gap, Second International Workshop Held At The National Oceanographic Institute, Haifa , Israel In April May. 7: 715-731.
  • Falkowski, P.G., D.A. Kiefer, 1985b Chlorophyll a fluorescence in phytoplankton: Relationship to photosynthesis and biomass. J. Plankton Res. 7: 715-731.
  • Falkowski, P.G., Z. Dubinski, G. Santostefan, 1985a Light enhanced dark respiration in phytoplankton. Limnol. 22: 2830-2833.
  • Falkowski, P.G., Z. Dubinsky, G. Santostefano, 1985b Light-enhanced dark respiration in phytoplankton. Int. Ver. Theor. Angew. Limnol. Verh. 22: 2830.
  • Falkowski, P.G., Z. Dubinsky, K. Wyman, 1985c Growth-irradiance relationships in phytoplankton. Limnol. Oceanogr. 30: 311-321.




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